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Section 1: Visas and Immigration >> Book >> Section 1

US Immigration and Visas

 US, the “land of immigrants” has historically welcomed settlers from around the world with open arms. A majority of Americans trace their ancestry back to England, Ireland, Europe and Africa; some to South America, Asia, and increasingly India.

The first recorded immigrant to the US was Annie Moore, a 15year old Irish girl who passed through Ellis Island on Jan. 1, 1892. Since then millions of  "huddled masses yearning to breathe free", as described on the nearby Statue of Liberty, landed on the shores of America, hoping to strike it rich in the land of honey and milk. Of course, contrary to popular myth, the streets were not paved with gold as an old Italian story posted in Ellis Island museum states: "I came to America because I heard the streets were paved with gold. When I got here, I found out three things: First, the streets were not paved with gold. Second, they weren't paved at all. Third, I was expected to pave them." At its peak in 1907, Ellis Island was handling more than 11,000 immigrants a day.

The Indian Diaspora in the US is historic, dating back to over a century, began when peasants from Punjab began appearing on the west coast, seeking work in Washington’s lumber mills and California’s vast agricultural fields.  Interestingly, back in 1907, Indians were the victims of a racial riot in Bellingham, Washington; And after that, the Asiatic Exclusion League and other associations attempted to prevent further immigration from India. The Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965, set a quota of 20,000 immigrants from each country. The majority of Indians arriving during that period were professionals.  This was also the height of cold war, when the US needed scientists, technocrats and doctors. English-speaking Indian professionals with a solid background and education were welcomed with open arms. Subsequently many more came to the US under family reunification preferential categories. In decades since then, America has seen an influx of Indian students with solid grounding in the sciences who came here for higher education and decided to call this country home -- a saga poignantly portrayed by Anurag Mathur in his novel “Inscrutable Americans”.

The nineties saw an influx of Indian software professionals (a.k.a. H1 visa holders) who came here to meet the insatiable demand for computer specialists who could not only fix the Y2 bugs and help in the boom, but also work in hundreds of thousands of data-centers and IT departments across the country. Not surprisingly, Indian techies can be found in almost all the states and major cities, working for companies ranging from Fortune five hundred giants to small utilities and government bodies.

Young professionals from India still aspire to partake in the globalization, and wish to go abroad either as professionals or to study. In order to visit any foreign country, including the US, Indians need a document a.k.a. visa, which grants the holder entry for a specific purpose. One cannot travel abroad without a visa. A is visa issued to people who wish to be in the U.S. on a temporary basis, for example, tourism, medical treatment, business, temporary work, or study. The visa issuance by western nations is extremely regulated and one would needs to be prepared to jump through a number of hoops to acquire the coveted stamp on one’s passport.

In the next few sections of the book, we will examine the intricacies involved in acquiring a student visa, H1 work visa and employment based green card. However, we will not be looking at B1 (business) and L1 (intra-company transfer) visas since they involve complex regulation and are issued selectively, generally petitioned by the companies. We will also not be going over family based visa’s and sponsorship of green cards.

Historic Data on Immigration from India to the US












1891 - 1900





1901 - 1910





1911 - 1920





1921 - 1930





1931 - 1940





1941 - 1950





1951 - 1960





1961 - 1970












































































(Data Extracted from INS Statistics. More recent Statistics are posted on

Student Visas

Thousands of students from India make an annual trek to the shores of the US during the fall, hoping to get educated in some of the best universities around. What started as a “brain drain” of the students from elite institutions in India in the sixties has become a “routine migration”. Education opportunities exist in a wide range of institutions in the US – from Ivy leagues to small-town community colleges. The emphasis on higher education, along with the glamour associated with a “US degree” motivates Indian students to seek admission in the US.  American universities welcome foreign students with open arms, considering them as an excellent source of steady revenue, especially since international students are expected to pay inflated fees. 

Preparation for the trip begins over a year in advance with most students applying to universities by December. This is required because the admission decisions in most universities in the US are completed by early spring. Students applying to universities in the US need to get adequate scores on standardized tests like GMAT/GRE, TOEFL etc. The scores and their role in the admission process is highly subjective since the universities also take into consideration a number of other aspects like academic history, scholarships, awards, published papers, work experience etc. To hedge their chances, students apply to at least a dozen universities. It is only after the gets an admission from the university that she can apply for a visa since the “Form I-20” required by the embassy is issued by the college, school or university. 

The coveted F1 (or M1) visa is perhaps one of the most important documents that a student needs to acquire and is generally given after an in-person interview at the local embassy or consulate. June, July, and August are the busiest months in most consulates, and interview appointments are the most difficult to get during that period. To allow time to overcome any unforeseen problems that might arise, students are encouraged to apply for their visas several weeks before they plan to travel. 

INS defines a Student – “As a nonimmigrant class of admission, an alien coming temporarily to the United States to pursue a full course of study in an approved program in either an academic (college, university, seminary, conservatory, academic high school, elementary school, other institution, or language training program) or a vocational or other recognized nonacademic institution.”

 The documentation requirements for students seeking an F1 are quite rigorous and subjective. Also, because each student’s personal and academic situation is different, two students applying for same visa may be asked different questions and be required to submit different documents. All applicants for a student visa must provide: 

Ø      A Form I-20 obtained from a U.S. college, school or university. The form must also be signed by the student and by a school official. 

Ø      A completed nonimmigrant visa application form (OF-156) with photographs.

Ø      A passport valid for at least six months after your proposed date of entry into the United States;

Ø      A receipt for visa processing fee. 

All applicants should also be prepared to provide:

Ø      Transcripts and diplomas from previous institutions attended;

Ø      Scores from standardized tests required by the educational institution such as the TOEFL, SAT, GRE, GMAT, etc.;

Ø      Financial evidence that shows you or your parents who are sponsoring you have sufficient funds to cover your tuition and living expenses during the period of your intended study. 

When a person enters the United States on a student visa, he will usually be admitted for the duration of the student status. That means one may stay as long as one is a full time student, even if the F-1 visa in the passport expires while in America. However, if the student departs the U.S. with an expired visa, she will need to obtain a new one before being able to return to America and resume studies. A student visa cannot be renewed or re-issued in the United States; it must be done at an Embassy or Consulate abroad.  The most accurate and up-to-date information on visas’ can be found at the US department of state website at

Higher education in the US is an expensive proposition, but the returns can be tremendous, especially when one considers the long-term growth and career opportunities. It is hard to set an exact dollar amount, but the tuition and fees for an MS degree alone could range anywhere between $20,000 and $80,000. Add to this living expenses, air tickets etc and the total tally can add up. There was a time, back in the sixties when demand for students, especially from the burgeoning defense research industry was huge. Flush with research funds, universities were able to sponsor talented scholars from around the globe. This is not true anymore. Aid or student grants are extremely hard to come by, especially for foreign students.

On landing in the US, students not only grapple with their course work but also cope with the change in culture, lifestyle etc. A tremendous support network in the form of Indian Student Associations (ISA’s) exists in universities across the country. Volunteers who offer informal support, advice and networking for newly admitted students run the associations, which are generally affiliated with individual universities.  Many ISA’s also maintain websites with lists of members. Prospective students in India find it convenient to shoot off e-mails to their peers in the US. (A list of ISA’s is attached in the appendix.) ISA’s also provide opportunities for Indian students to network, socialize and maintain a semblance of Indianness in a far-away land. This network also has fringe benefits in the form of help with logistics, finding roommates etc.

Many students in India may be hesitant to contemplate education in the US, especially after the incidents of Sept 11th. Since a number of suspected terrorists came here on student visas, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and US consulates across the world have become overcautious while scrutinizing applications. However, scholars with a genuine interest in higher education have and will always been welcome. The US government and educational institutions are still continuing the policy of welcoming foreign students, albeit after an extra round of scrutiny.

H1-B Work Visas  

Those intending to come and work in the US need a work-visa, also called H1 B visa, which is issued to professionals. Many in India, especially those in the field of software have heard of H1, but most people are either bewildered by, or are totally ignorant of the intricacies involved in the H1-B process. In this article, chapter, we will to shed some light on the process.

Each nation in the world has highly protective laws in place to safeguard the livelihood and to secure work for their citizens. Incidentally, even India is highly protective of its workforce, and it is extremely difficult for a foreigner to legally come and work anywhere in the country. Needless to say, Western nations have been highly protective of their workers and do not want hordes of foreigners taking away their jobs. The exception to this rule has been with respect to computer professionals. In the late eighties and early nineties, Western countries started reaping the benefits of large-scale computerization and automation. This in turn increased their productivity and bolstered their economy. However, they were not prepared for the sudden increase in demand for programmers, analysts and software professionals needed to build, maintain and manage their systems.

A number of countries including the US, UK and Canada realized the need for software professionals and as a ‘stop gap’ measure relaxed their labor laws to allow the entry of foreigners with these specialized skills. In the US, companies are allowed to bring temporary workers on a visa known as the ‘H1-B’. In other countries, a work visa is known by different names; for instance, in the UK and Singapore, it is called the ‘work permit’. By whatever name it is called, one thing is common, it is a “temporary” visa that allows a foreigner to live and work in the country for a specified period of time, after which the visa holder is expected to return to their native lands.

During the surge in the economy that we experienced in the nineties, H1-B helped employers access a huge pool of worldwide workforce, talented in computer systems design, analysis and testing. There was also a surge in demand for people who could fix the Y2K bug along with the demand from the burgeoning’s. India, incidentally managed to bag over 50 per cent of H1-B visas’ during 1998 to 2000.

The H1-B documentation process begins when an employer petitions the US government, requesting permission to allow a prospective employee to come, live, and work in the US. This application process is archaic and complex and is generally done by specialized attorneys hired by the company. The processing times for the visa approval process is extremely unpredictable. Although most immigration attorneys have a ballpark estimate of the current processing time, it is extremely difficult to predict how long a particular case is going to take.

One of the most important aspects of the H1-B visa is its extremely restrictive nature. After a person comes to the US on a H1-B, he/she is expected to work for that employer who had sponsored the paperwork. Switching jobs would mean going through the same process with the new employer. After the expiry of the visa or on termination of employment, the person is expected to leave the country, unless they can find another employer willing to sponsor a H1-B. Employees coming to the US on H1 visas are allowed to bring their spouse and children along. They are issued dependent visa’s (a.k.a. H4 visas’). Even H4 visas are highly restrictive since a person in the country on a dependent visa is not allowed to work.

Most employers in the US are either unaware of or unwilling to jump the legal hoops to get an employee sponsored on H1-B. There are a number of software houses that are adept at this process. An interesting list of top sponsors in the US can be found in the appendix. Because of the complex maze one must go through, a number of body shoppers have a field day sponsoring H1-B visas’, placing the employees at client sites and skimming off profits. Some have even gone as far as to compare it with indentured labor; this is partly the fault of gullible youngsters in India and elsewhere who succumb to the ‘Get to US quick’ schemes promoted by unscrupulous middlemen. 

The H1 boom of the nineties was unplanned for and the downturn was equally unpredictable. Between 1997 and 2000, it is estimated that nearly half of the H1’s issued by the US government went to Indians. After the end of Y2K and burst, demand for H1 techies started tapering off. The economic recession has aggravated this situation with many more loosing their jobs. H1 holders were mortified to find that they would have to pack up and leave the US if their employment was terminated and they were “out of status”. In a slowing economy, many employers are unwilling to sponsor new visas and hence many people are finding it hard to switch jobs after being laid off.  If there is any good coming out of the US slowdown, it is the fact that the tribe of body-shoppers is slowly vanishing. This is not to say that jobs for H1-B visa holders will vanish, but that employers will become more selective of the people they employ and they will increasingly bypass smaller middlemen.

The flip side of the US slowdown is that many more companies are willing to outsource their software systems. Large Indian software houses like Infosys, TCS, Wipro, HCL, CBSI etc will continue to bag large projects in the US and will send a number of employees on H1-B. Some industry pundits are also predicting that outsourcing (of large projects) to India will continue to grow, leading to lesser reliance on H1-B. 

One thing is for sure, although H1-B visa is not going away anytime soon, but the means of “get to the US quick” is definitely undergoing a change. Although the fate of H1B visa is uncertain, and at the time of writing this book, people from India are still coming to the US, one thing is certain, H1 as a “get to the US quick” means is undergoing a sea change. When the economic cycle changes course, there will be a renewed demand for quality software professionals. Although the floodgates may not be reopened, the US will still need to invite scores of professionals from India and elsewhere.

Points to remember about H1

  • The application for H-1B visa involves a very complex process, generally done by the employer’s lawyers. 
  • The employer is legally required to pay for the cost of sponsoring the visa. 
  • It can be sponsored for a maximum period of six years after which the employee must leave the country. 
  • If employment is terminated during any time, the employer must give the employee an air ticket with all the wages/salary due. 
  • H1-B employees cannot be kept on “Bench without pay”. They must be paid during the bench period.   

H1 visa, although flexible enough to enables workers to come to the US and work for employers, is still highly restrictive since employees are allowed to work only for the employer who sponsored the initial paperwork. Switching jobs is extremely cumbersome. Because of changing market conditions, employees sometimes find themselves out of jobs or look for greener pastures. H1 employees need to look for employers who will sponsor their paperwork (new H1 visa applications) before they can change jobs. Many Indians prefer to apply for the coveted green card that gives residents a more permanent status in the US. In the next section, we will look at the nuances of applying for green cards, especially the employment based green card filing.  

Green Card: live and work in the US without restrictions

In the previous chapter, we looked at H1 visas and the temporary work status that it bestows on the holder. H1 visa, although very useful to companies that wish to employ foreigners, is designed to be extremely restrictive. Many employees who come to the US on H1 visas realize that working in the US involves an element of uncertainty. People want to be in control of their life and career and want to have the flexibility to change jobs if things are not going their way. In a hire-and-fire work culture, with the cloud of layoffs looming over the tech sector, it makes sense for today’s Gold-Collar workers to seek an element of independence and flexibility. This is especially true for those working for small employers and body-shops. What does one do if one wants to live and work in the US without restrictions? The answer is: Acquire a permanent resident status (a.k.a Green Card).  There are different ways to apply for a green card including sponsorship by family members, employers, applying as a refugee etc. In this section I will deal mainly with employment based sponsorship of green-cards.

The legal definition of green card holder is a person who is a permanent resident alien in the US. INS defines a Permanent Resident Alien as “An alien admitted to the United States as a lawful permanent resident. Permanent residents are also commonly referred to as immigrants; however, the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) broadly defines an immigrant as any alien in the United States, except one legally admitted under specific nonimmigrant categories (INA section 101(a)(15)). An illegal alien who entered the United States without inspection, for example, would be strictly defined as an immigrant under the INA but is not a permanent resident alien. Lawful permanent residents are legally accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States. They may be issued immigrant visas by the Department of State overseas or adjusted to permanent resident status by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in the United States”.

A Green Card allows one to permanently live and work in the US. Except for some jobs that require ‘security clearance’ and US citizenship (for example, working for FBI), a Green Card holder is allowed to work for any employer, even at McDonalds as a cook or waiter. This is the kind of flexibility that most employees desire when contemplating acquiring a Green Card. Of course, there are other fringe benefits that come with a Green Card. One’s spouse and children acquire the same status and are free to live and work. Incidentally, spouses of H1 visa holders are not allowed to work, unless they can get an employer to sponsor their own H1 visa, which is another story altogether.

Having a Green Card has another advantage. In the US, most of us even those on H1 visas’ pay Social Security taxes. This tax is supposed to assure the payee a “pension” of a specified sum of money when they turn 59. The catch is that, to receive Social Security, one must be residing in the US or should have worked and paid taxes in the US for at least 10 years. H1 holders are not allowed to remain in the US for more than six years, so they forfeit all the benefits when they return home. Green Card holders who work in the US for at least ten years, on the other hand, are eligible for Social Security benefits.

If Green Cards bestow so many benefits, why don’t most people get one, instead of continuing on H1 visa? The answer lies in the application process. A typical application involves the most archaic and cumbersome paper trails one can envisage. US Government’s Immigration and Naturalisation Service (INS) states, “If you want to become an immigrant based on the fact that you have a permanent employment opportunity in the United States, or if you are an employer that wants to sponsor someone for lawful permanent residency based on permanent employment in the United States, you must go through a multi-step process.” The document also found on goes on to describe the five stages:

  • First, foreign nationals and employers must determine if he/she is eligible for lawful permanent residency under one of INS’ paths to lawful permanent residency.
  • Second, most employment categories require that the U.S. employer complete a labour certification request.
  • Third, INS must approve an immigrant visa petition, (a.k.a. the I-140 stage).
  • Fourth, the State Department must give the applicant an immigrant visa number. Until recently most Indians faced a big bottleneck in acquiring a visa number since each country was given a ‘quota’ and Indians in each category were not allowed more than 7500 visa’s.
  • Fifth, if the applicant is already in the United States, he or she must apply to adjust to permanent resident status after a visa number becomes available.

Needless to say, many employers balk at the prospect of going through this complicated processing, hoping to retain the employee after he acquires a Green Card. This is especially true in the current economic climate where employers are looking to cut costs and streamline their operations. Specialised immigration attorneys generally handle the paperwork involved in the Green Card process which can cost upwards of six to eight thousand dollars. One of the most ludicrous aspects of the application is the second stage where the company’s lawyer has to petition to the labour department claiming that the employee is nothing short of a rocket scientist.

Even if an employer is willing to sponsor a Green Card application, the process can drag on for years. The author’s employment-based green card application sponsored by his employer took nearly three years to process. The application is not easily transferable and if one were to switch to another employer, the clock gets reset. Some employers, especially body-shops use the Green Card process as a lure to keep employees on a tenterhook. Given the uncertain business environment in which we live, waiting for a green card to be processed can be extremely stressful. With a lot of lobbying from employers and H1 holders, lawmakers and Senators have realised the ludicrous amount of time it takes for Green Card application to be processed. They have been working to help streamline the process. A number of bills have been passed that require INS to streamline their operations.

US is not the only western nation to attract qualified foreigners with green-cards. Apart from the US, a number of other countries also provide ‘permanent resident’ status to foreigners. Singapore, Canada and Australia are by far the most ‘immigrant friendly’, especially for Indians. The application process for these countries is also not as expensive and time consuming as that of the US Green Card application. Canada is by far the most generous country in the world when it comes to attracting permanent residents, especially those with good education and technical backgrounds. They have a “point system” and if a person qualifies with the minimum number of points, he or she is considered. The processing time for applications is also relatively short a few months as opposed to the US Green Card that can drag on for years.

As the world becomes more global and Indians move to various countries around the world, establish themselves, and launch new careers, they are finding opportunities where others might not even consider looking. Many credit the Indian immigrant community for the success of Silicon Valley. Even with all the bottlenecks associated with the application process, a Green Card is perhaps one of the most potent tools an individual can acquire while working to further one’s career in a foreign land.  

There are a number of other ways to acquire the coveted US permanent residency. Apart from an employment based sponsorship, one can have a relative sponsor the application. People from  certain designated countries (not India) are eligible to take part in what is popularly known as the “green card lottery” . Refugees also have a different application process. Each of the application processes is so complex and archaic that it would require a book to describe.  

Employment-Based Immigration 

The US Immigration and Nationality Act provides a yearly minimum of 140,000 employment-based immigrant visas, which are divided into five preference categories. The eligible categories for an employment-based immigration include:  

  • Employment First Preference (E1)

 Priority Workers receive 28.6 percent of the yearly worldwide limit. All Priority Workers must be the beneficiaries of an approved Form I- 140, Immigrant Petition for Foreign Worker, filed with INS. Within this preference there are three sub-groups:

1) Persons of extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics. Applicants in this category must have extensive documentation showing sustained national or international acclaim and recognition in the field of expertise. Such applicants do not have to have a specific job offer so long as they are entering the U.S. to continue work in the field in which they have extraordinary ability. Such applicants can file their own petition with the INS, rather than through an employer; 

2) Outstanding professors and researchers with at least three years experience in teaching or research, who are recognized internationally. No labor certification is required for this classification, but the prospective employer must provide a job offer and file a petition with the INS; 

3) Certain executives and managers who have been employed at least one of the three preceding years by the overseas affiliate, parent, subsidiary, or branch of the U.S. employer. The applicant must be coming to work in a managerial or executive capacity. No labor certification is required for this classification, but the prospective employer must provide a job offer and file a petition with the INS. 

  • Employment Second Preference (E2) 

Professionals Holding Advanced Degrees, or Persons of Exceptional Ability in the Arts, Sciences, or Business receive 28.6 percent of the yearly worldwide limit, plus any unused Employment First Preference visas.  A job offer is required and the U.S. employer must file a petition on behalf of the applicant.  There are two subgroups within this category: 

1) Professionals holding an advanced degree, or a bachelors degree and at least five years progressive experience in the profession;  

2) Persons with exceptional ability in the arts, sciences, or business. Exceptional ability means having a degree of expertise significantly above that ordinarily encountered within the field. 

  • Employment Third Preference (E3) 

Skilled Workers, Professionals Holding bachelors degrees and Other Workers. All Third Preference applicants require an approved I-140 petition filed by the prospective employer. All such workers require a labor certification, or evidence that they qualify for one of the shortage occupations in the Labor Market Information Pilot Program. There are three subgroups within this category: 

1) Skilled workers are persons capable of performing a job requiring at least two years' training or experience; 

2) Professionals with a baccalaureate degree are members of a profession with at least a university bachelor's degree; and 

3) Other workers are those persons capable of filling positions requiring less than two years' training or experience.  

  • Employment Fourth Preference (E4) 

Special Immigrants receive 7.1 percent of the yearly worldwide limit. All such applicants must be the beneficiary of an approved I-360, Petition for Special Immigrant, except overseas employees of the U.S. Government who must use Form DS-1884. There are six subgroups:  

1)       Religious workers coming to carry on the vocation of a minister of religion, or to work in a professional capacity in a religious vocation, or to work for a tax-exempt organization affiliated with a religious denomination;
2)       Certain overseas employees of the U.S. Government;
3)       Former employees of the Panama Canal Company;
4)       Retired employees of international organizations;
5)       Certain dependents of international organization employees; and
6)       Certain members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

  • Employment Fifth Preference (E5)

Employment Creation Investors receive 7.1 percent of the yearly worldwide limit. All applicants must file a Form I-526, Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, with the INS. To qualify, an alien must invest between U.S. $500,000 and $1,000,000, depending on the employment rate in the geographical area, in a commercial enterprise in the United States which creates at least 10 new full-time jobs for U.S. citizens, permanent resident aliens, or other lawful immigrants, not including the investor and his or her family. A detailed description of the visa process can also be found on the US government website at

In this section of the book, we looked at some of the most common ways by which Indians – students and employees – can get visas to come to the US. We also looked at the nuances involved in applying for a green card that gives individuals a right to permanently work and live in America. The information in this section, although accurate at the time of writing is meant as a guideline only. It is not legal information and the readers are advised to contact competent lawyers and legal experts before contemplating filing for a visa. There are a number of other kinds of visas like B1 (business visas), L1 (Intra-company Transferee visas) and tourist/visitor visas that are also issued to foreigners. We have not looked at those visas since they are highly subjective and require a different set of documentation. There are a number of useful reference websites and books that go over the intricacies involved in issuance of American visas and the current rules and regulations.


People from all over the world prepare for months, getting all the documents in order to seek the coveted American visas that will help them partake in the wealth creation opportunity that the American market affords. The allure of life in the US is its wealth and economy built on a foundation of over two centuries of stable democratic governance. No wonder it is the de facto superpower not only in global economics but in global politics and international affairs too. Those moving to the US need to be aware of the nuances of finance and money making in the US. The standard of living in the US, compared to that in India is manifold. Hence even the saving potential gets magnified when Indians move to the US. In the next section, we will look at various aspects of   finances including earning, savings, income taxes, entrepreneurship and credit management.



©Mohan Babu: All Rights Reserved 2002- 2013

All rights are reserved. Mohan Babu ("Author") hereby grants permission to use, copy and distribute this document for any NON-PROFIT purpose, provided that the article is used in its complete, UNMODIFIED form including both the above Copyright notice and this permission notice. Reproducing this article by any means, including (but not limited to) printing, copying existing prints, or publishing by electronic or other means, implies full agreement to the above non-profit-use clause. Exceptions to the above, such as including the article in a compendium to be sold for profit, are permitted only by EXPLICIT PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT of Mohan Babu. 

Disclaimer: This document represents the personal opinions of the Author, and does not necessarily represent the opinion of the Author's employer, nor anyone other than the Author. Any mentions of commercial products, company names, or universities are solely for information purposes and do not imply any endorsement by the Author or any other entity. The Author provides this article "as is." The Author disclaims any express or implied warranties including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of commercial value, accuracy, or fitness for any particular purpose. If you use the information in this document in any way, you do so entirely at your own risk.

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Book Index

  • Intro
  • Section 1: Visas and Immigration
  • Section 2 Finances
  • Section 3 Law and legal system
  • Section 4 Consumerism
  • Section 5 Life and weekends in the US
  • Section 6 Health and lifestyle
  • Section 7 Demographics
  • Section 8 Indians in America: Looking to the future after Sep 11th
  • Section 9 Preparing for the next wave
  • Appendix

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